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The Manual Of the Volunteer

   The Manual Of the Volunteer
(Norms of behavior)
Edited by: Alfina and Mario Tassone
INDEX
1. - The logistics
1.a. - You logistics has to guarantee
2. - the volunteer
2.a. - Behavior of the volunteer
2.b. - Equipment of the volunteer
2.b.1. - Clothing
2.b.2. - Equipment of subsistence
2.b.3. - personal first aid
3. - reassuming
4. - behavior of the voluntary rescuer
5. - behavior and reactions of the victims of a catastrophe
5.a. - individual Reactions of the victims
5.b. - collective Reactions of the victims
6. - the active role of the population struck by the catastrophe
7. - The catastrophe
7.a. - Classification of the catastrophes
7.a.1. - Classification of the catastrophes in base to their origin
7.a.2. - Classification of the catastrophes according to the number of the
victims
8. - conclusions
9. - bibliography
1. - THE LOGISTICS
The Logistics is defined the art to predispose, from personal prepared, the
means of transport, the communication, the provisionings, the structures of
reception and of refuge.
In the picture of a situation of emergency, it deals with the whole the
personnel of the,
means and of the materials to be put in work for a good organization of the
paramedics.
1.a. - You logistics has to guarantee:
To) Primo assisted immediate;
B) medical Diagnosis of the traumatized victims, completed by interventions of
extreme urgency that allows them to survive and to face the transport
(triage);
C) Restoration and management of the systems of communication among the damaged
area, the
I husk external and the rescuers;
D) Evacuation from the damaged zone;
And) Transport and maintenance of provisions and materials;
F) Distribution of provisions and materials to damaged and rescuers;
G) Installation and management of structures of refuge for damaged and
rescuers;
H) periodic Substitution of the personal rescuer.
The appointment of the means, their distribution, their employment on the
ground, keeping in mind of the nature of the catastrophe, of the material and
human consequences and of the assignments to develop, you/he/she has called
Tactic
2. - THE VOLUNTEER
The organized Volunteer constitutes an essential resource in the management of
the emergency. In base to the specific knowledges it directly participates in
the
rescue efforts, handling the transport and the care of the wounded, to the
assistance of the population, or to technical activity or logistics.
The Volunteers, well equipped and trained, it is well that introduces him on
the place of the emergency already organized in groups precostituiti,
homogeneous, and autonomous. And' the Authority responsible of the organization
of the paramedics to decide the number of
voluntary to use and the place whether to send them.
The volunteer has to develop the assignment that him and' submits, with
effectiveness and discipline, to whatever level of the chain of the paramedics
you are found to operate.
2.a. - Behavior Of the Volunteer
When the Volunteer is the first witness of an event, you/he/she owes:
1) to transmit the alarm.
2) to furnish all the information and the useful elements because the
intervention of the
rescuers is rapid and contemplated.
3) attention - Her information that the Volunteer furnishes they owe
to mirror the reality and if not dictated by a specific knowledge, they don't
owe
to contain personal evaluations.
4) it has to remain on the place of the event up to the arrival of the
paramedics. It owes
to suspend his/her own individual action in the moment in which she is
constituted
before organization of help.
5) when the Volunteer is inserted in an action of help articulated and
complex, it owes:
Integrare his/her own activity in the general plan of the paramedics.
Evitare to keep to himself/herself/themselves and to complete actions
dictated only by his/her own initiative
and from the really impulse.
2.b. - Equipment Of the Volunteer
The Volunteer, when it participates to an action of help, it has to be able of
to operate under the optimal conditions, without constituting a weight for the
other rescuers.
The Voluntary rescuer, therefore, has to be endowed with suitable Means
INDIVIDUAL OF PROTECTION.
These are of two types:
1) CLOTHING
2) EQUIPMENT OF SUBSISTENCE
2.b.1.-clothing
The Volunteer has to wear heads of attire (clothing) with the characteristic
followings:
to be proper for the environment conditions in which the emergency is
developed.
to protect the Volunteer from the action of hostile elements (fall of
objects, folgorazioni, etc...)
to be strengthened in the three most important parts of the corpo:testa with
protective helmet, hands with gloves, feet with boots or other specific
footwears if the conditions of
job they ask for him/it.
to be proper for the climatic conditions of the place struck by the
emergency: it owes, therefore, to protect the Volunteer from the warm one, from
the cold, from the rain or from the damp, also for prolonged periods.
to be fit to the place of employment to which the Volunteer is assigned
to be comfortable, not to hinder the movements, but it doesn't have to offer
grips
to be of resistant fabric.
In the case in which the Volunteer is endowed with an uniform, this owes:
to be confirmed
to be identical for all the members of the same organization
to have a particular color, a symbol or a well visible badge to allow the
identification of the Volunteer and his/her duty.
2.b.2 - Equipment Of Subsistence
The Voluntary rescuer has to be autonomous especially in the first period of
the emergency, in attended that the logistic component of the paramedics is
organized.
The Volunteer has to be autonomous on the plan:
Food (perceives of water to drink, alimentary rations)
ALBERGAMENTO (sack to hair, covered, possible curtain)
The Volunteer, besides, also during the emergency, it has to respect the rules
of personal hygiene especially in case of intervention prolonged in the time.
The material
necessary (laundry of exchange, soap, toothpaste, etc...) it has to be
preserved
in containers (purses or backpack) of easy transport.
personal equipment of the voluntary rescuer
electric torch and backup batteries
lighter
gas stove
Placed (fork, knife, spoon)
knife multiuso
water bottle
purse for personal cleaning
towels
envelope sewn
sweaters (cotton or wool)
stockings (cotton or wool)
underclothes
1 sweater
1 pair of pantaloni
1 gymnastics overall
1 wool beret
1 pair of wool gloves
1 pair of job gloves
1 impermeable (mantle, jacket, k - way, etc...)
1 pair of sneakers
1 pair of pedule (heavy shoes with sole in it protects)
1 pair of boots
1 sack to hair
1 cover
If he owns a tuta/divisa, some suitable suits tightly are not necessary. The
fabric of the garments has to be select in base to the climate of the zone
struck from the emergency or to the season. The list can be completed with
others
objects or particularly necessary garments to the single Volunteer.
2.b.3. - Personal First aid
Attention - And' opportune that the Volunteer brings with if, both during the
emergency
what in exercise, a least personal first aid, to face small emergencies
(excoriations, abrasions, small wounds, distorsions, etc...)
They already exist in commerce ready wrappings, however it is to have available
well:
prepared bandaids of different format
adhesive bandaid
absorbent cotton
prepared disinfectant (alcohol, oxygenated water, bialcool)
safety pins
teasels sterile
ammonia (for the care of punctures of bugs)
hemostatic drawstring
scissors
The material above suitable it has to be preserved in a container closing
raincoat hermetic. For completeness of information, it is necessary to remember
that it would be opportune to also have available:
triangular bandages (they serve to sustain an offended limb, to
tener stops a medication to the head, to the piede,al knee
sticks of different length (in case of articular fractures)
ointments antiustione
antihistaminic ointments
ointments to take care of traumas. bruises, distorsions
bathes ocular
I freeze dry
gloves monouso
pliers to remove splinters
And' opportune, besides, that the Volunteer has with if a document that brings
the
blood group of affiliation and possible other sanitary information.
3. - REASSUMING
when the voluntary rescuer and' called to develop an assignment or to bring to
term a mission, owes:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


1) to brake every impulsive rush
2) to brake his/her own susceptibility
3) to leave space to a modest attitude and to the spirit of discipline
The volunteer has to possess all the necessary qualities to operate in an
environment
hostile or on a difficult ground. this adaptation to the different functions is
gotten with a permanent training and a continuous updating in the field of the
proper ones
specific knowledges.
If these conditions will be respected, the work of the volunteer will be
effective her
chain of the paramedics and you/he/she can bring his/her own help in every
situation of exceptional emergency.
4. - BEHAVIOR OF THE VOLUNTARY RESCUER
The Voluntary rescuer, when it is found in the place struck by the catastrophe,
in front of the ruins of the houses, to the suffering of the wounded, to the
corpses, to the desperation of whom has lost his/her own darlings or his/her
own possessions, it has to know how to check his/her own inevitable emotions
with the purpose to be able to lend his/her own work of help to the best. The
due effects to the strong emotions can be decreased learning to repeat the
"technical gestures" in automatic way. This result is reached him/it effecting
a lot of exercises:
only so the Voluntary rescuer can develop the really assignment with calm, in
shiny and precise way.
The Voluntary rescuer, during the emergency, it has to show authority and
steadiness.
And' tried that a lot of neurotic reactions from survivors or victims, are
reduced or you eliminate with encouragements or with orders imparted with
steadiness.
The Voluntary rescuer if it behaves in calm way and it shows safety in the
to complete his "technical gestures", it transmits to whom has been stricken
from the calamity a reassuring effect; it owes therefore to learn to prove
himself/herself/themselves calm, firm, authoritative and
reassuring.
The Voluntary rescuer, however, doesn't have to exceed in to prove
himself/herself/themselves authoritarian: an excessive attitude increases the
anxiety of the victims that you/they have need of
reassurances and understanding. Also being authoritative, firm and calm the,
Volunteer has to collaborate and to cooperate.
The pages that follow contain a series of information of base that
they allow the voluntary rescuer, in case of intervention, to understand the
reactions
of whom and' struck by a catastrophe and to behave him in correct way.
5. - BEHAVIOR IS REACTIONS OF THE VICTIMS OF ONE
CATASTROPHE
Victim - This term not only points out the corpses and the wounded, but also
the uninjured survivors physically and the damaged that you/they have accused
the loss of relatives and the material good.
C the victims' omportamento - Her victims, immediately after the event, they have
reactions and behaviors, individual or of group, that you/they can increase
her/it
confusion and the social disorganization and to force the rescuers to uselessly
hock time and energies.
The done studies teach that, in the most greater part of the catastrophes, the
70% of the individuals apparently maintain a calm behavior, but that in reality
it corresponds to the incapability to feel emotions and to have initiatives of
every type; the
15% of the individuals it immediately manifests reactions of uneasiness; 15% of
the individuals
it maintains cold blood.
5.a. - Individual Reactions Of the Victims
5.a.1. - Reactions reduced in the time and without consequences.
The reactions of the victim can be: precipitous escape, nervousness
psicomotoria, aggressiveness, immobility, etc... They are of brief duration and
don't leave consequences.
When the victim repurchases lucidity, generally test a sense of shame for
what has done.
The rescuers' intervention. It has to confine himself/herself/themselves to
energetic but reassuring words
you pronounce with tone of voice I calm, but firm. And' well that the victim
immediately is
involved in the activities of help.
5.a.2. - Reactions reduced in the time and without consequences, but late.
The victim, even if during the catastrophe you/he/she has known how to maintain
it calms down and during the rescue efforts you/he/she has lent his/her own
help in valid way, suddenly
you/he/she is gathered from: crisis of weeping, excesses of aggressiveness,
tremor to the braccias and the legs, hysterical behaviors, etc.... Generally
the crisis manifests when the danger has passed and the physical strengths and
the moral resources are exhausted. The fact not to be assembled in activity of
help anymore, makes besides, easily the victim it plunders of the anxiety and
of the anguish. This phenomenon strikes the people that in appearance
they seem calms, but that in reality the catastrophe has made incapable to try
feelings.
Their job, up to the moment of the crisis, you/he/she has mechanically been a
whole finished gestures.
The rescuers' intervention. If the crisis doesn't finish in autonomous way, it
will have to serve to facilitate its overcoming with words of comfort or
encouragement, for then to reinstate the subject in the group of the busy
survivors in other activities of help. 5.a.3. - lasting Reactions.
They strike victims that already before the event they are psychologically
subject fragile or suffering psychic. They are spectacular reactions (attempt
of suicide, sudden unjustified escapes, false paralyses, false blindness,
hallucinations, fear to relive the event, etc...), they are continued in the
time and they stop when the physician intervenes with the
proper medicine.
The rescuers' intervention. It has to serve to isolate the victim from the
group of the other survivors, to maintain her/it on the place of the recovery
the less possible, to immediately bring her/it the nearest sets physician for
the cares of the case. And' discounted to remember
what the analysis of these behaviors and the consequent decisions are entirely
assignment of the medical personnel.
5.b. - Collective Reactions Of the Victims
They strike more numerous groups of victims and, in some cases, also the whole
community involved in the catastrophe.
5.b.1. - Escape
And' the most diffused reaction. It consists in the abandonment of the damaged
zone, it coincides with
the delay in the arrival of the paramedics, lasts a few times and finishes with
the attainment of a sure considered place. It causes a thick and uncontrolled
influx of survivors, to the search of help, in the zones around the area struck
by the catastrophe.
The rescuers' intervention. It has to stop the escape bringing the paramedics
and the cares
applications and reorganizing the groups. These interventions reassure and they
reassure the victims getting further the fear.
5.b.2. - collective Fear or panic
And' the reaction more feared and more dangerous. It consists in a desperate
escape
accompanied by violent actions. The collective panic develops him to the sudden
one to arrive of a real danger or of a real or imaginary threat and him
it propagates for imitation. It causes dead and wounded because stamped on or
crushed against an obstacle and he spontaneously exhausts after some minutes.
And' followed by a phase of due calm to the to relieve
himself/herself/themselves some tension.
The rescuers' intervention. Exhausted the phenomenon, with their presence, they
have to reassure and to reassure the population, to reorganize the groups, to
individualize and to isolate the individuals that the reaction could have
provoked. The best intervention consists in the prevention: rational management
of the alarm and continuous information
to the population.
6. - THE ACTIVE ROLE OF THE POPULATION STRUCK BY HER/IT
CATASTROPHE
The population struck by a catastrophe, even if victim of the described
reactions
in the preceding pages, it has a role imported and profit in the management of
the first ones
paramedics.
The inhabitants of the zone interested by the event, in fact, are able:
to point out the streets of communication to the convoy of the rescuers
improves or alternatives
to collaborate in the search of the missing and in the recognition of the
victims
to furnish essential information speaking of possible consequential dangers
from the presence of industries, of deposits or of other activities in the
zone.
It is necessary to remember, besides, that are people among the victims that
for their profession, preparation and social position you/they can practice an
important role
in the organization of the paramedics and to positively influence the
population (public administrators, physicians, ministers of the cult, teachers,
representatives of the police, etc...).
Don't hold count of these existing human resources it is an error both on the
organizational plan, and on that of the prevention of the collective
psychological reactions caused by the catastrophe.
7. - THE CATASTROPHE
The catastrophe is a sudden and unexpected event that a collectivity strikes,
it upsets the social organization and it provokes very important damages, both
to the
population (corpses and wounded) that to the things (houses, roads, etc...).
The catastrophe immediately causes a temporary disproportion among available
means of help and the real necessities caused by the event.
The catastrophe is an event that asks for the extraordinary mobilization of one
great quantity of paramedics.
7.a. - Classification Of the Catastrophes
Two methods of classification of the catastrophes exist. The first one founds
him on the origin of the event, the second on the number of provoked victims.
7.a.1. - Classification of the catastrophes in base to their origin
NATURAL DISASTERS
Catastrofi geologiche - Earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions,
seaquakes.
Climatic Catastrofi - Floods, floods, avalanches, mareggiate, hailed, etc...
Bacteriological Catastrofi - Epidemics
Zoological Catastrofi - Invasions of grasshoppers, termites, etc...
TECHNOLOGICAL CATASTROPHES
Incidenti - Road, airplanes, railway, maritime, river.
Incidenti - Chemical, nuclear, transport of dangerous substances.
Incendi - Residences, offices, industrial complexes.
Crollo - Immovable
Cedimenti - Dikes
Esplosioni - Silos, devices, material dangerous
CATASTROPHES OF WAR OR ARMED CONFLICT
Cannoneggiamenti
Bombardamenti - Airplanes, naval
Siluramenti
Occupazione of hostile armies
Aggressioni - Nuclear, bacteriological, chemical
Sabotaggi
SOCIAL CATASTROPHES
Moti of revolt
Carestie
Terrorismo and fraudulent accidents
Hostages' Presa
7.a.2. - Classification of the catastrophes according to the number of the
victims
Ordinary Incidenti - 1/10 victims

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Catastrophic Incidenti - 10/100 victims
Collective Disastri - 100/1.000 victims
Greater Disastri - 1.000/100.000 victims
Greater Catastrofi - 100.000/1.000.000 victims
Another classification that an event defines catastrophe exists if it provokes
these consequences:
50 dead
over 100 wounded
over 2.000 evacuated people
valued property losses at least 50 million dollars USA
8. - CONCLUSIONS
Often (too often) they meet him in the world of the Civil Protection Voluntary
(surely animated by great generosity, disinterested altruism and good person
wish)
what they devote a lot of attention:
to the tesserinis to be exhibited
to the many colored stickers with which to adorn his/her own motorcar
to the mythical one "uniform" (often turned into a rich collection of badges
of
forms and different colors)
Reading these pages, it is realized that the Civil Protection is well other
thing: it is a science.
DON'T BE' THE UNIFORM THAT THE TRUE VOLUNTEER DOES!
Often the Organisms competent provosts are accused to the Civil Protection of
superficiality, improvisation and incompetence.
Tutti the volunteers, any is their specific assignment, in case of emergency
"true", am I able to operate in suitable way?
La good wish and the availability replace the lack of preparation?
Her Associations of Volontariato, besides the uniforms, do they also furnish
the tools to their affiliates to get ready himself/herself/themselves to
operate better always?
The answer is in who questions.


   
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